The facts that explain the key differences in the structure and the means of production among the countries that have been growing and adding to our knowledge of the conditions and sources of poverty in the world , but do not add much to our understanding of how poverty this may arise or how to handle it best . To answer these questions , it should be examined how economic development was taking place . Economic development can best be viewed as a process that ongoing . The changes in a series of factors can cause changes in the sequences of other variables , and so on can cause an increase in the per capita income . The process was not then have to stop it at that . An increase in income can lead to new impulses that ultimately will bring another rise due to increasing per capita income . The problem , both for those who want to predict the exact per capita income in the future as well as for those who want to outline policies to accelerate development , is to find the variables and key relationships in the development process .
Development theories are great and the last 200 years , and its main contributions after World War II , will be described and assessed in magnitude . These theories contain basic principles that turned out to be of great importance in the aspects of historical experience and political influence . Despite theories that usually can not be directly applied to the developing world today, each existing theories emphasize one particular relationship that is very important to understand the processes that the main growth in developing countries today .
Similarities that exist between the various theories that will be discussed in advance , which includes the period from and classical writers until the time after Keynes , is penitikberatannya on capital formation as a process that is crucial in economic development . All theories mi trying to understand better the process of capital accumulation and economic factors that stimulate or inhibit capital formation . Pikiranpara kiasik economists and neo – classical and Marx in relation to the achievement of the objectives mi. As will be seen , the analysis and the classical economists very prominent because it shows how economic development can be thwarted by population pressures coupled with the scarcity of natural resources . Donations and neo – classical writers , on the other hand , is very meaningful because penyempumaan classical economic theory in analyzing the process of savings and investment and in treading the effects of inter- sector and development . In contrast to Marx , the neo – classical writers also put pressure on balk influences and technological advances . Marx argued that the relationships between production associated with capitalism can not be equated with technological advances generated under the system and that as a result of capitalism always be plagued by periodic periods of depression that will ultimately lead to economic stagnation . Tenlepas and truth of these views , Marx’s analysis is very useful to show the development costs which are often very expensive because of the shock – shock social and economic .
It is no doubt that the most famous names in the world of economics is Adam Smith . An observation about the nature and causes of Wealth of Nations (1776 ) 1 ) , has a lot of influence both thinkers and policy-makers . Such as turns and title, the attention Smith primarily located in the economic development problems . He wanted to discover how the economy can emerge pentumbuhan and the facts and policies that influence what .
A. The Division of Labour and Cumulative Growth .
According to Smith , the Work -sharing is the key to improving productivity . If the workers specializing in activities to a particular course and no longer perform some tasks of production , then with the same effort that they will collectively produce more . However, before the division of labor can be done on a large scale , it first needs to be held as capital raising by labor specialization generally involves the use of machinery and equipment – specific equipment . Hence the Smith emphasized the ability and the willingness of people to save as an essential condition for economic growth .
Other restrictions on the division of labor is the magnitude of the market . If the market value is too small , then the request will not be enough to absorb the goods are made by mass production methods . Raise the income level brings a tendency to expand the market for most commodities ; also , new buyers can be sought in other countries . As said Smith about the discovery of America : ” By opening new markets and never saturated for all the commodities of Europe , there arose widespread division of labor as well as improvements in the way of working , in the last regular trade limitations will never be able to emerge because lack of market to absorb some of the largest and results . ”
Once the development goes , then the sequel will usually run alone . If only there was little initial capital stock and the marketing possibilities are sufficient , then the division of labor and specialization will arise and national income will increase . The increase in revenue will not only open up a new market , but also a source for savings and greater investment . And this will prepare the state for division of labor and revenue growth further . Another advantage and division of labor is increasing emergence of new ideas and better to make commodities . Capital stock is made possible by the division of labor and specialization before then taking the form of machinery and equipment more perfect .
Is there a limit in the cumulative process of development ? Sayanglah that the limit exists , said Smith . This will occur when an economic system has reached ” full richness made possible by the nature of the soil and climate as well as the situation of the other states to be achieved ” . Smith is not very clear in explaining how this silent position will ultimately be achieved , but the factors that will eventually stop the growth is again the lack of natural resources . With a more mature economic system through capital formation and population growth , then the more difficult for him to overcome obstacles nintangan – natural resources . The levels of return on capital will decline until eventually no more stimulus or a means to raise capital further .
B. Models Ricardo
David Ricardo , perhaps the most brilliant among economists kiasik , which explains bagaimanakab congestion is eventually going to hit all the systems view of Ricardo’s economic development is a picture of where the difficulty increases sem akin to provide food for the population of the enlarged inakin will eventually stop the growth process . teoni mi is a very simple but fairly complete , with the very real relevance to the developing countries with a very dense population .
Ricardo model contains three major economic groups of capitalists , workers and landlords . Capitalists are those who direct and – with – profits saving ketuntungannya – start the development process . During the earnings level is above a certain minimum , almost at zero level , then they will continue to save and accumulate capital . The largest group , the pekeija , do not have any means of production but use alatalatnya provided by the capitalists . The size of the labor force varies , depending on the level of wages . According to Ricardo , there is a level of real wages that are ” natural ” , created by custom and habit , in which the working population will not increase or decrease . If wages rise up above the level of noodles , then a decrease in mortality due sebagal more nutritious foods and health standards higher will bring a rise in the number of the population . Conversely , if the real upahupah level drops below the ” natural ” , then the deaths will exceed births and the population will decrease .
The latter group is the landlord class , ie those who have a supply of land that never changes and that can attract the rent for its use . Rent on each unit of land that wears a certain amount of labor and capital is equal to the difference between the proceeds and what is produced in the land acquisition and the results that can be generated by the amount of labor and capital are the same in most low -quality soil used . Soil types will last mi basically a form of free land by any capitalist can be used without paying the rent . As a result , it is the landlords who own the land that can produce more and what is produced on marginal land such as a lease would be an interesting difference in the results between the marginal and intra – marginal land in the competitive bidding among kapitalls to gain ground better .
C. The state of Silence .
Such as Adam Smith , Ricardo saw it as a growth process can evolve itself – until a certain point . To start the process , then the rate of profit must be positive . mi will stimulate the capitalists to save the majority and incomes . Balk the landlords and the workers spend all of their income , according to Ricardo , that the capitalists hold a crucial role in the growth process . With investment funds , then the capitalists tried to broaden the results with rnengupah more workers and buy more equipment . mi push real wages up above the natural rate , at least for a while. However , wage increases due to decreased mortality brings and , not long after, an increase in the labor force . mi tends to suppress further back wages . But if those resources are abundant and high profit levels , it is possible that capital formation will take place so quickly that real wages remain high for a long period of time .
However, with the growing population of the lands which the poorer began work to meet growing food needs . Rent on land that was better quality will increase and absorb the larger part and the results obtained and tanahtanah mi. Remaining money to be used by the capitalists and the pekeija thus be reduced . Degree of profit – ago levels menururi and wages began to move to natural levels . During the earnings level is still above zero , then the capital continue to raise money and thus population growth while maintaining motion . But in the end the scarcity of arable lands into an obstacle that can not be skipped . mi will occur at the time the results and something units of labor and capital used in the poorest land acquisition which resulted in just enough to cover the natural wages of the workers involved . Nothing else is left for capital and thus also no longer any inducement or means for further capital raising . The same thing happens in soils more fertile . Rent absorb the difference between the overall results and the lands and natural wage of labor used . Then came the motionless state positions ; spiders to zero ( or nearly zero ) ; real wages are at the level of the minimum natural and very high rents .
The main strength to fight the end result is pessimistic mi – penyempumaan improvement in agriculture in order to take advantage of the need for land most infertile may be delayed . Such technological advances will happen occasionally as well , but according to Ricardo is not fast enough to be able to move the state menghalanghalangi ultimately be achieved as well . Another important way out anyway and the state of international trade is a kind of noodle . Industrialized countries specializing in the manufacture din goods and the import of cheap food ingredients and developing countries that are rich in land still will be able to delay the arrival of the consequences and resource – limited natural resources .
Little or a lot MI means that no one can ever professed wisdom of a nation to avoid congestion at the arrival end . We may think that the economists kiasik certainly raised his hands in despair facing the prospect of such mi. But it seems they never looked like this fatalistic economic development . The state of silence is going to arrive at a han , so their views , but in fact they can always just find appropriate measures to postpone it . All of these policy recommendations revolve around the limitation to a minimum of government interference . Ricardo , like other kiasik writers , believe that almost all of the tax will eventually collide with the benefits that will relax their level of economic development . Or , conversely , if the owners of capital are given maximum flexibility to make a profit , he estimated that the hand of the price mechanism invisible to properly distribute those resources are tensedia and act delay as long as possible the arrival of a state without the motion, provided it does not there is monopoly positions .


bagian dunia yang lebih maju di akhir abad kedelapanbelas serta abad kesembilanbelas.”>Sepenti easily understandable , then what can not be predicted by economists kiasik is broad and kemantapanflya industrial revolution raging in all parts of the world are more developed in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries . Advances in technology more and able to compensate the effects of increasingly severe and profits berkunang . Maithus the crude theory about population growth in negana benlaku not state that it is more advanced . With rising income levels , then the numbers began Menuhin birth and thus act as a barrier over population growth . In the third quarter of the nineteenth century , the levels of income per capita in countries that have benkembang was far above what can be considered as the minimum threshold level of nature , and , moreover , rising by leaps and bounds . As a result the teoni kiasik regarding economic development seem not nelevan again to analyze the economic pentumbuhan countries . that have been advanced .
Most economists and leave a simple but thorough approach of writers kiasik . The changes in the number of people considered as ” certainly ” and instead should be explained again sebagam and analysis section . Similarly, the technological advances dipenkenalkan as a variable that stands sendini , has been determined by the forces of non – economic . Economists neoÄklasik be far more ” mclihat into ” than its predecessors . They begin to analyze how do lov allocate system resources in an economic group in antana usage thousands of different and competing with each other .
A. The process of capital formation .
One of the important points that a lot of benefit and how to approach noodles is capital formation . The authors looked at the classic noodle process as something that worked mechanically . The owners of capital automatically replant and most of its revenue , as long as the level of profits was in a near- zero level . Writers perfected neo – classical analysis and noodle making it more applicable to the institutional environment and abadabad nineteenth and twentieth centuries .
In the neo- classical models , the savers and investors are not necessarily the same person . Entrepreneurs can only buy capital goods with borrowed funds , and each person can save by buying valuable papers and no longer with the purchase of physical assets . Capital market became intermediaries in which savers and investors meet, and they ‘ll supply and demand of funds that can be reconciled with each other diinventasikan . Price and implementation functions of noodles is sukubunganya level . More specifically , the volume of savings is considered dependent on the interest rates . If interest rates rise , and 4 % to 6 % , it is considered that people would save more and incomes that are at a certain level . But there is also a very low interest rates at which they would prefer to spend all their income . With other words , the curve of the graph supplies funds that can be invested beijalan supply curve rose as usual . Changes in income levels also affect savings . The higher one’s income , the greater the willingness to save money on something that is certain Degree of interest rates .
In the neo – classical analysis of the Degree of interest rate also plays a very important role in determining investment . The entrepreneur will compare the percentage of profits that they earn and something of investment projects with a level percentage of what they would be able to borrow funds for financing . During the former had higher danipada the latter , then more menguntungkanlah to invest . In the state of knowledge no matter what the technology is, the greater the volume of investment , the rendahlah acquisition and additional investment activity . Like the demand curve in general , the demand for funds that can be invested thereby pointing downwards . However, improvements in technology – penyempunnaan tend to shift the entire curve to the right .
In any particular period of the intersection between the demand curve and the supply curve will determine the investment funds balk real interest rates in the market and the volume of savings and investment . The investments made in the capital stock increase economic system and thus increase productivity keijanya force . On the other hand , in the absence of technological advances that will demand curve for the invested funds will decrease , because the projects are the most profitable investments have been depleted in the previous period . Sebagal permitnaan curve and consequently the bid curve will intersect at a lower interest rates , and thus making the projects less profitable to more profitable . While this process takes place, then the volume of investment activity will gradually decrease and eventually stop after sukubunganya levels become so low that the community as a whole no longer wish to save the rest of his money . This is the position kea ~ aaan immobilising silent , but without the burden of per capita income levels are low .
Most writers neo – classical with optimism refused to accept the final results motionless sort of noodles . They agree with Marshall : ” It seems that there is not sufficient reason to think that our basis is approaching a state of silence . ” This optimism is based on two important factors . First , they believe that technological advances continue to always open the barn investment prospects are very favorable . According to their estimates , these advances will run fast enough to be able to overcome , at least in the near future to come , each urging any congestion caused by the scarcity of natural resources . Second , they assumed that any small decrease in interest rates would make the prospect of a large amount of investment to be profitable . With other words , the demand curve will be the funds that can be invested is elastic at all . Therefore, it will take a long time before a stationary position without the motion will be achieved , even in the absence of technological progress .
Optimistic view of the absence of a willingness to assume mi save at most and residents . If the desire to save the weak , the growth will be slow , no matter how lucrative opportunities to invest . But optimism neokiasik also extends as far as mi. Although they never miss any opportunity to praise the attitude to scrimp and save , most neo-classical economists assume that saving it has become ingrained habit among developed countries – a habit that becomes more and more powerful .
B. Phased Development and Dressage .
Another important aspect in view of the neo – classical growth Concerning the nature of the development is taking place bit by bit and harmonious . In contrast to the models of Ricardo and – even more so – the framework according to Marx , the development according to the neo – klasisme is not a process in which a income brackets take advantage Sedangkafl others losers . All classes benefit and growth . Advances in technology may cause temporary unemployment among certain workers , but the net effect and that such progress is increasing the demand for labor . After all , in ways that barn is just introduced gradually so that in most cases short-lived technological unemployment does not make problems .
Reflections turning profitable and growth in the industry in other industries also highlights the quality serasinya development process according to the neo – classical . Marshall introduced the notion of ” External Economics ” to describe this kind of interrelationship . With the ” External Economics ” meant the prospects increase for Something keun Tungan certain industries and as a result of an economic activity that occurs entirely outside the industry . For example , with the increasing development of an industry , then it will require more raw materials and services and environments other industries . These industries and encouraged to flourish as well . Similarly , the growth can make the price of a product , such as electric power to be down thanks to savings – savings that it is produced on a large scale . The decline in prices in turn will raise the profits among industriindustni which are users of large power . One donation brilliant minds and experts – neo- classical economics is that they managed to find an association of this kind of micro – relationships . They showed that the development is not just a series of simple relationships between some common variables .
Each step forward brings the result of a complex chain reaction which can influence on a variety of businesses and industries , and that in itself can be a cause of further growth is not small .
The notion that investment projects have good interaction to one another often used to justify plans massive investment that the government set for developing countries now mi. However , the neo-classical economists are not interesting implications of such a policy and the interrelationship – interrelationship in contrast , they are more likely to follow the wisdom of Laissez – faire advocated by writers kiasik . Government intervention is necessary to prevent monopolies and to maintain national defense , but in general atomistic competition similar companies small size is considered as the most excellent wisdom to stimulate development . They rejected the argument that some of the biggest and investment opportunities that have inter – relationships requires centralized control if the opportunities are going to be used most favorable to the fullest . According to neo- classical models , the development takes place in small steps that almost never stops . Therefore the prices in general will never stray very far as an indicator for investment opportunities most productive . Levels of economic uncertainty are also at a minimum point in the economic environment that is so smooth and harmonious . Due to that, the growers have a tendency to always observe any inter – relationships that require large investments and make cost calculations were careful to secure the success of their businesses .
III contradictions IN DEVELOPMENT
A major challenge to the development of theory and neo – classical kiasik come and Marxist class 6 ) Marx and his followers considered traditional development theory as shallow and meaningless . Circumstances such as technological advances are going slow or scarcity of natural resources , in their view , is simply a less causes for tenjadinya fundamental difficulties in construction . We should first examine the properties that affect the economic system over the course of production to be able to find the fundamental factors that determine the pattern of development . An arrangement of certain economic activities of production determines the classification structure ( class structure) in a society . So , then , and a certain class structure so it can be formed of a superstructure in the form of ideas and institutions that dominate the culture of the society . In the early stages of a new social system , the productive forces are balanced well with the material masili class structure and the superstructure and its institutions gagasangagasan it . But the class structures and institutions that surround it turned into a permanent and can not be changed again , while the forces of production experience perubahanperubahan mateniilnya autonomously . The composition of the group that there be no benmbang again with economic forces that barn , and there was a division between the political factions willprofit and social changes and the group that will be harmed . Therefore, the production  it determines everything , then the group will benefit in the end result is always going to win with the establishment of a new social system .
Here’s a glimpse of the historical – materialist interpretation of Marx . If we want to make a proper assessment of the processes and prospects for development , then we must analyze Marx growth within the framework of this theory . Social system , especially the attention of Marx is , of course , capitalism . In his view , the capitalist system containing nds of contradictions in it ssucceed . In fact , the contradictions noodles in magnitude so that the system itself will eventually collapse and be replaced by socialism . In societies without such the forces of great economic and stimulate the growth will be utilized fully , and development that will produce will benefit everyone in the community .
Growth A.Model by Capitalism .
Marx’s analysis of the development under capitalism is as follows . There are two classes in the system : the capitalist class and the working people . The first class has all the means of production ( equipment and natural resources ) contained in the economic system . The worker or the worker only has the power to sell . The goal of each capitalist is as much as possible increase profits ( rental and return on capital by Marx united only under the terms in , not only to raise their own living standards but , more importantly , also to get investment funds to be able to compete with other capitalists other .


slam is the religion revealed to man as the grace of the universe. His teachings always bring benefit to human life in this world. Allah himself has stated this, as mentioned in (Surah Toha: 2): “We did not lose this Qur’an be hard”. It means that human beings are willing to follow the guidance of the Qur’an, will be guaranteed by God that their lives will be happy and prosperous world and the hereafter. Instead anyone who defied the teachings of Islam and to deny this, surely he will have a narrow life and suffering.

Islamic teachings are full of benefits for these people, of course, covers all aspects of human life. No forms of activity humans do, but God has put rules in Islamic teachings. Culture is one of the trivial side of human life, and has been set limits and give- below attempts to explain the relation between Islam and culture. Although short hopefully contribute to the notion of Islamic heritage.

Meaning and Nature of Culture

In the Big Indonesian Dictionary terms. 149, states that “culture” is the mind, the intellect, customs. Being “culture” is the result of the activities and the creation of mind (intellect) humans, such as beliefs, arts and customs. Sociologists define culture with overall proficiency (customs, morals, art, science, etc.). Moderate  historians interpret as heritage or traditions. Even experts Antropogi see culture as a system of life, way of life, and behavior. These definitions indicate that the very broad range of cultures. For ease of discussion, Ernst Cassirer divided into five aspects: 1. Spiritual Life 2. Language and  3. Art 4. History 5. Science.

Spiritual aspects of life, including physical culture, as a means (temples, ancestor sculpture, architecture), equipment (clothing, food, tools ceremony). Also includes social systems, such as ceremonies (birth, marriage, death)

The aspects of language and include local language, rhymes, poems, novels.

Aspects of the arts can be divided into two major parts; visual arts and performing arts, which include; visual arts (painting), performing arts (dance, music,) Theatre (puppet) Architecture Art (houses, buildings, boats). Aspects include science scince (exact sciences) and the humanities (literature, philosophy and history culture).

Relationship between Islam and Culture

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To determine the extent of the relationship between religion (including Islam) with a culture, we need to answer the following question: why do people tend to maintain the culture, from whence the insistence that moved men to work, think and act? What drives them to nature and the environment is always changing it for the better?

Most experts consider that culture is a dynamic cultural tendency to divine. In fact according to Hegel, the overall work realized in the form of human science, the rule of law, constitutional, art, and philosophy is none other than realisasidiri process of divine spirits. In contrast to some experts, like Pater January Bakker, in his “Philosophy of Culture” states that there is no relationship between religion and culture, as he argues, that religion is a belief in spiritual life of adherents, in response to a divine call. This belief is called Faith, and Faith is a gift of God, the human being is the work culture. So they can not be found. As according to the anthropologist, as expressed by Drs. Heddy S. A. Son, MA that religion is a cultural element. It was, as the anthropologist said that humans have the mind and have a knowledge system that is used to interpret a variety of symptoms as well as religious symbols. Human understanding is very limited and not able to reach the essence of the verses in the scriptures of each religion. They can only interpret the sacred texts in accordance with existing capabilities.

This is where,, that religion has been the result of human culture. Various religious behavior, according to experts antropogi, is not regulated by the verses of the holy book, but by their interpretations of the sacred texts. From the description above, it can be concluded that the culture experts have a different opinion on the view the relationship between religion and culture. The first group considers that religion is the source of cultures or in other words that the culture is the real form of the religion itself. This opinion is represented by Hegel. The second group, which was represented by Father January Bakker, assume that culture has nothing to do with religion. And the third group, GCC assumes that religion is part of culture itself.
To see people and their culture, Islam is not looked at from one side only. Islam considers that humans have two important elements, namely earth elements and elements of soul that God breathed into his body. This is clearly visible in the Word of God as-Sajda Qs 7-9: “(Allah) is He Who began the creation of man from clay, then He made his seed from an extract of despicable water yan (semen). He refined and then breathed into (the body) of his spirit (creation) His “In addition to creating man, Allah Almighty also created beings called Angels, which is only capable of doing good deeds alone, because it was created from light elements. And also create a Satanic or devil can only do evil, as been created from fire. While humans, as mentioned above, is a combination of the two elements of the creature.

In a hadith mentioned that this man had two prompter; whispers of angels, as a application of the elements of a soul breathed God, and whispers of Shaytan, as an application of the elements of the soil. Both elements are present in the human body, and the conflicting pull. When people do good deeds and good deeds, then the element wins angels, otherwise when people do immoral, adulterous and make mischief in the earth, the elements of a winning syetanlah. Therefore, in addition to providing sustenance, the willingness and ability in the form of hearing, sight and hearts, God also gives instructions and guidelines, so that people are able to use such pleasure to worship and do good on this earth.

God has given to man an ability and freedom to work, think and create a culture. Here, Islam recognizes that culture is a human creation. Being religious is a gift of God for the benefit of the man himself. That is a gift of God to man to direct and guide the works of man to make it worthwhile, has a positive value and elevate human dignity. Islam teaches Muslims to always do good and work, to always use the God-given mind to cultivate the natural world into something useful for human benefit. Thus, Islam has acted as a spur man to “cultured”. And at one time put the Islam that rules, norms and guidelines. Up here, it may be said that the culture itself, derived from religion. Theory like this, it seems closer to what Hegel stated above.

Cultural attitudes towards Islam

Islam, as has been described above, it comes to organizing and guiding communities toward a good and balanced life. Thus Islam is not come to destroy the culture that has embraced a society, but at the same time Islam desires that mankind is far and avoid things that are not useful and bring madlarat in his life, so that Islam needs to align and guide culture that developed in the community towards the civilized culture and and heightens the degree of humanity.

This principle, actually animate the contents of Law of the State of Indonesia, article 32, although in practice, and there are differences of detail is striking. In the explanation of article 32 of the Constitution, stated: “Business culture must progress toward culture and unity, with no new material rejected from a foreign culture to develop or enrich the national culture itself, and heightens the degree of humanity of Indonesia”.

From there, Islam has divided culture into three kinds:

First: Culture is not against Islam.

In fiqh rules stated: “al adatu muhakkamatun” means that the customs and habits of a society, which is a part of human culture, have an influence on the determination of the law. But it should be noted, that the rule only applies to things that do not exist in syareat provisions, such as the size of the levels of dowry in marriage, in the people of Aceh, for example, the family usually women, to determine the amount of dowry around 50-100 grams gold. In the culture of Islam Shah-Shah, because Islam does not determine the size of the dowry that must be given to women. Determine the shape of the mosque building, allowed the architecture of Persia, or Javanese Joglo architecture.

For things that have been defined in the terms and Islam, the customs and habits of a society should not be used as a legal standard. An example is what was written by Ahmad Baaso in a newspaper stating that interfaith marriage is allowed in Islam on the grounds of “al adatu muhakkamatun” because of inter-religious marriage has become a culture of a society, then it is permissible to the basic rules above. Such statements are not true, because Islam has determined that a Muslim woman is not allowed to marry a pagan.

Second: Cultural elements are partially contradictory to Islam, then in the “reconstruction” so be Islami. most obvious, is the tradition of Ignorance who perform the Hajj in ways that are contrary to the teachings of Islam, as lafadh “Talbiyah” is loaded with shirk , Thowaf in the Ka’bah naked. Islam came to the cultural a form of “worship” predefined rules. Another example is the Arab culture for poetry Ignorance. By Islam culture is retained, but reconstructed it to fit with the values of Islam.

Third: Culture is contrary to Islam.

Like, the culture of “cremation” is done by the people of Bali. Ie cremation ceremony held in a festive atmosphere and vibrant nightlife, and massive. This is done as a form of improvement for the dead to return to the creator. Ceremony of this kind requires a very large cost. The same was done by the people of Central Kalimantan with culture “tiwah”, a cremation. The difference, in “tiwah” funeral was conducted in the form of canoe first. Then when it came time, the remains will be exhumed to be burnt again. The ceremony lasted until a week or more. The organizers must provide food and beverages in large quantities, as witnessed by the residents of the villages in a large area. In the Toraja region, to bury the dead yan, also requires huge cost. The funds were used to hold animals for sacrifice in the form of a buffalo. Another made by communities Cilacap, Central Java. They have a culture of “Tumpeng Rosulan”, in the form of the food offered to God and the Prophet another cone, which is dedicated to Nyai Roro Kidul is a ruling by the local community southern Ocean (Indian Ocean).

The things above are some examples of cultures that are contrary to the teachings of Islam, so Muslims are not allowed to follow. Islam forbade him, because the culture as it is a culture that does not lead to progress , and unity, and not increase the degree of humanity of Indonesia, on the contrary it is a culture that degrades humanity. Because it contains the teachings of squandering treasure for things that are unnecessary and humiliating people who have died.

In this case al-Kamal Ibn al Himam, one of the great scholars of the Shafi’i Hanafi said: “Verily the texts syareat much stronger than tradition, because tradition could have been a falsehood that has been agreed upon, such as what part of our society today , which has a tradition of putting candles and lamps in particular cemetery on the nights of Eid. ‘re Nash syareat, having proved to-autentikannya, then it may not contain a falsehood. And because of the tradition, the people who believe in it is binding, binding syare’at nash human being as a whole., Then nash much stronger. And also, because of the tradition of texts allowed through intermediaries, such as in the hadith: “what is stated by good Muslims, then it is a good thing”

From there, it is clear that what is stated by Dr. Abdul Hadi, a lecturer at the Faculty of Philosophy and Civilization Paramadina University, Jakarta, that Islam should not be hostile or remodel the local culture, but should position them as the verses of God in this world or jurisprudence is inadequate to understand the art, is not true

Korut Bersumpah Beri ‘Pukulan Paling Kejam’ pada AS

Korut Bersumpah Beri Pukulan Paling Kejam pada AS

Pemimpin Korea Utara Kim Jong-un. Korut bersumpah memberi ‘pukulan paling kejam’ pada AS jika melakukan provokasi militer. Foto / REUTERS

MOSKOW – Pemerintah Korea Utara (Korut) bersumpah untuk memberikan ”pukulan paling kejam” terhadap Amerika Serikat (AS) jika melakukan provokasi militer pada Pyongyang. Ancaman ini disampaikan Duta Besar Korut untuk Rusia, Kim Hyong-Jun, semalam.
Ancaman disampaikan setelah Presiden AS Donald Trump berjanji untuk terus membangun kekuatan pertahanan Washington untuk menghadapi Pyongyang.

”Tentara kami telah mengatakan bahwa jika ada, bahkan provokasi terkecil dari AS selama latihan (perang), kami siap untuk memberikan pukulan paling kejam,” kata Kim Hyong-Jun seperti dikutip Interfax, Jumat (7/4/2017).

”Kami memiliki kesiapan dan kemampuan untuk melawan setiap tantangan dari AS,” ujarnya.

Presiden Trump pada hari Rabu lalu berjanji kepada Perdana Menteri Jepang Shinzo Abe bahwa AS akan terus memperkuat kemampuannya untuk mencegah dan mempertahankan diri dan sekutunya dengan berbagai kemampuan militer. Pernyataan Trump muncul setelah rezim Pyongyang yang dipimpin Kim Jong-un menembakkan rudal balistik ke Laut Jepang (Laut Timur).
Kementerian Luar Negeri Korut sebelumnya juga mengecam keras latihan militer gabungan AS, Korea Selatan dan Jepang yang dianggap sebagai gladi resik untuk menginvasi Pyongyang.

“Aksi nekat mendorong situasi tegang di semenanjung Korea ke ambang perang,” kata kementerian itu melalui seorang juru bicara yang dilansir KCNA.

Menurut kementerian tersebut, gagasan bahwa AS bisa melenyapkan penangkal nuklir Pyongyang melalui sanksi adalah mimpi terliar.
Pyongyang seperti diketahui terus mengembangkan rudal jarak jauh yang diklaim mampu menghantam daratan AS dengan hulu ledak nuklir. Negara komunis ini sudah lima kali menguji coba senjata nuklir, dua di antaranya dilakukan pada tahun lalu.


Armada Kapal Perang AS Menuju Korea

WASHINGTON – Armada kapal perang Amerika Serikat (AS) menuju Semenanjung Korea untuk unjuk kekuatan pada Korea Utara (Korut) yang tetap melanjutkan program senjata nuklir. Langkah AS ini akan meningkatkan ketegangan di Semenanjung Korea dan berlangsung setelah serangan rudal AS ke Suriah. 
Itu artinya pengerahan armada kapal perang itu menjadi peringatan atas penolakan Pyongyang menghentikan program nuklirnya. Armada kapal perang itu dipimpin satu kapal induk. 

”Perintah Komando Pasifik AS pada Grup Penyerang Carl Vinson menjadi langkah bijaksana untuk menjaga kesiapan dan kehadiran di Pasifik Barat,” ungkap Komandan Dave Benham yang menjadi juru bicara Komando Pasifik AS.

”Ancaman nomor satu di kawasan masih Korut yang melanjutkan program tes rudal dan menginginkan kemampuan senjata nuklir secara gegabah, tidak bertanggung jawab, dan mengacau stabilitas,” tegas Komandan Dave Benham, dikutip kantor berita AFP. 

Armada penyerang yang terdiri atas kapal induk kelas Nimitz, USS Carl Vinson, sekarang bergerak dari Singapura ke Samudra Pasifik Barat. Pyongyang ingin mengembangkan rudal jarak jauh dengan hulu ledak nuklir yang dapat mencapai wilayah daratan AS. 
Hingga saat ini, Korut telah menggelar lima tes nuklir, dua tes digelar tahun lalu. Pakar citra satelit menyatakan Korut akan menggelar tes nuklir keenam. Para pejabat intelijen AS memperingatkan, Pyongyang membutuhkan kurang dari dua tahun untuk mengembangkan hulu ledak nuklir yang dapat mencapai Benua Amerika. 

Korut pada Rabu (5/4) lalu menembakkan rudal balistik jarak menengah ke Laut Jepang menjelang konferensi tingkat tinggi AS dan China. Pada Februari, Korut secara rutin menembakkan empat rudal balistik dari pantaitimur, tiga rudal jatuh dekat perairan Jepang. Pyongyang menyatakan peluncuran itu untuk latihan menyerang pangkalan AS di wilayah Asia. 
Agustus lalu Pyongyang juga sukses menembakkan rudal dari kapal selam. Rudal dengan jangkauan 500 kilometer itu meluncur menuju Jepang. Jarak yang mampu ditempuh rudal itu melebihi berbagai tes peluncuran sebelumnya dari kapal selam.

Pemimpin Korut Kim Jong-un menyambut peluncuran itu sebagai kesuksesan terbesar. Sistem rudal antarbenua itu membuat ancaman Korut semakin mengkhawatirkan. Itu artinya Korut dapat meluncurkan rudal yang dapat mencapai jarak lebih jauh dari wilayah Semenanjung Korea. 

Pada Kamis (6/4) dan Jumat (7/4), Presiden AS Donald Trump bertemu Presiden China Xi Jinping untuk meminta Beijing membantu menghentikan program nuklir Korut. Trump sebelumnya mengancam mengambil

langkah sepihak terhadap Korut jika China tak bertindak aktif menekan Pyongyang. Ancaman Trump terhadap Korut itu tampak semakin nyata setelah serangan AS ke Suriah pada Kamis (6/4) lalu. 

Kepala Komando Pertahanan Aerospace Amerika Utara Jenderal Lori Robinson yang menyediakan deteksi rudal untuk kawasan itu menyatakan, dia sangat yakin dengan kemampuan AS mencegat rudal antar benua yang diluncurkan dari Korut ke wilayah AS. Meski demikian, dia khawatir dengan jenis rudal yang menggunakan mesin bahan bakar padat yang menurut Pyongyang berhasil dites Februari lalu.

”Di tengah ketidakpastian kondisi tes senjata strategis Korut, kemampuan kami untuk menyediakan peringatan terus berkurang,” ujar Robinson dalam keterangan pada para senator. Meski serangan sepihak AS terhadap Korut dari jarak dekat mungkin lebih efektif secara militer, aksi itu dapat membahayakan banyak warga sipil di Korea Selatan (Korsel).

History of the Birth of Islam in Indonesia

Islam is one of the major religions in the world today . This religion was born and flourished in the Arab land . Its founder is Muhammad . This religion was born one of them as a reaction to the lack of human morals at that time . Humans at the time lived in a state of low morale and ignorance ( ignorance ) . They are no longer heed the teachings of the previous prophets . It causes people to be at the lowest point . Idolatry , murder , adultery , and other low action rampant .

Islam began to be broadcast around the year 612 in Mecca . Due to the spread of this new religion was challenged by the environment , then moved Muhammad ( hijra) to Medina in 622 . From this evolved throughout the Islamic world .
Muhammad founded his realm in Medina . His government based on Islamic government . Muhammad then tried to propagate Islam to expand its territory .
After Muhammad died in 632 , the process of propagating Islam followed by the caliph appointed Muhammad .
Until the year 750 , Islam has been covering the region of the Arabian Peninsula , Palestine , North Africa , Iraq , Syria , Persia , Egypt , Sicily , Spain , Asia Minor , Russia , Afghanistan , and the regions of Central Asia . At this time the ruling was the Umayyad capital of Damascus .
In 750 , the Umayyads were defeated by the Abbasids and then ruled until 1258 with its capital in Baghdad . At this time , there is much to expand the territory . The concentration is more on the development of science , culture , and civilization of Islam . Baghdad became the center of trade , culture and science .
After the reign of the Abbasids , Islamic power split . This split resulted in a lot of the breakaway region . As a result , the spread of Islam is done on an individual basis . This religion can evolve rapidly as Islam regulates human relationships and the Lord . Islam is distributed without force everyone to embrace him .
Login Process and Development of Islam in Indonesia
History records that the traders play an important role in the spread of Islamic religion and culture . Indonesia’s strategic layout cause bandarbandar trade helped accelerate the spread . In addition , another way of contributing is through propaganda that made ​​the preachers .
a. The Role of Traders
As well as Hindu – Buddhist religion spread , the trader holds
important role in the spread of Islam , both merchants from outside Indonesia
and Indonesian traders .
The traders that come and trade in the trading centers in the coastal areas . Malacca is a transit center traders . In addition , the ports around Malacca as Perlak and Samudra Pasai also visited the traders .
They lived in these places for a long time , to await the arrival of monsoons. At this time of waiting , there was intermingling antarpedagang of various nations and between vendors and locals . Tempers activities introduce mutual customs , culture and even religion . Not only do the trade , even going on assimilation through marriage .
Among the traders , merchants are Arabic , Persian , and Gujarat which are predominantly Muslim . They introduce the religion and culture of Islam to other traders as well as to the local population . Thus , there began to be Indonesian population to Islam . Over time more and more adherents of Islam . Even then developed township of Muslim traders in the coastal areas .
Local residents who have converted to Islam later spread Islam to fellow traders , as well as to their relatives . Finally , Islam began to flourish in Indonesian society . In addition, the traders and voyagers also there are married to locals so was born the family and the children are Muslim .
It goes on for years and finally come up an Islamic community , which after a strong end to form an Islamic governance . From there was born in the Islamic sultanates of the archipelago .
b . Role – Bandar Bandar in Indonesia
Bandar is berths vessels or merchant ships transit . Airport is also the center of trade , even used as the residence of the businessman shipping . As an island nation located in the international trade route , Indonesia has a lot of airports . The ports have an important role and significance in the arrival of Islam to Indonesia .
In the ports of these Muslim traders introduced Islam to other traders or to the local population . Thus , an entrance port and the center of the spread of Islam in Indonesia . If we look at the geographical location of the cities of the central character of the Islamic empire in general lies in the coast – coast and estuaries .
During its development , the ports are generally grown into town and some have become the kingdom , such as Perlak , Samudra Pasai , Palembang , Jakarta , Sunda Kelapa , Cirebon , Demak , Jepara , Tuban , Gresik , Banjarmasin , Gowa , Ternate , and Tidore . Many airports leader who converted to Islam . As a result , many people were then converted to Islam .
The role of the ports as a hub of trade can be seen in his footsteps . The merchants in the city has its own township determined that placement with the approval of the city authorities , for example in Aceh, the Portuguese settlement , Benggalu Chinese , Gujarati , Arabic , and Pegu .
So also in Banten and market towns other kingdoms . From the above it can be concluded that the cities of the future growth and development of Islam have characteristics similar among others, located on the coast , there is no market , no mosque , no settlement , and there is where the ruler ( sultan ) .
c . Role of the Mayor and Scholars
One way the spread of Islam is a way mendakwah . In addition, as merchants , traders also act as a preacher of Islam . There is also the preachers who came along with his religious mission merchants . The spread of Islam through this propaganda goes the way of the scholars came to the people of propaganda object , using a socio-cultural approach . This pattern of acculturation shape wear , ie using local culture types were fed with the teachings of Islam in it . In addition , these scholars also established boarding schools as a means of Islamic education .
In Java , the spread of Islam made ​​by Walisongo ( 9 guardian ) . Trustee is the person who has reached a certain level in closer to Allah . The guardian is close to the palace . They are the people who give the endorsement of the legitimacy of a person’s accession to the throne . They also are advisors sultan .
Since it is close to the palace , they were then given the title of Sunan or His Majesty ( upheld ) . The nine trustees are as follows .

( 1 ) Sunan Gresik ( Maulana Malik Ibrahim ) . This is the first guardian to come to Java in the 13th century and spread Islam around Gresik . Buried in Gresik , East Java .
( 2 ) Sunan Ampel ( Raden Rahmat ) . Islam broadcast on Ampel , Surabaya , East Java . He is the designer of the construction of the Mosque of Demak .
( 3 ) Sunan Degrees ( Syarifudin ) . Children of Sunan Ampel . Religious broadcast around Surabaya . A Sunan very socially minded .
( 4 ) Sunan Bonang ( Makdum Ibrahim ) . Children of Sunan Ampel . Islam broadcast in Tuban , Lasem , and Apex . Sunan very wise .
( 5 ) Sunan Kalidjaga ( Raden Mas Said / Said Jake ) . Pupils Sunan Bonang . Broadcast Islam in Central Java . A leader , poet , and philosopher . Religious broadcast by adapting to the local environment .
( 6 ) Sunan Giri ( Raden Paku ) . Islam broadcast outside Java , Madura ie , Bawean , Nusa Tenggara , and Maluku . Religious broadcast by the method of play.
( 7 ) Sunan Kudus ( Jafar Sodiq ) . Islam broadcast in Kudus, Central Java . An expert in the art of building . The result is the Holy Mosque and Minaret .
( 8 ) Sunan Muria ( Raden Umar Said ) . Islam broadcast on the slopes of Mount Muria , located between Jepara and Kudus , Central Java . Very close to the commoners .
( 9 ) Sunan Gunung Jati ( Syarif Hidayatullah ) . Islam in Banten broadcast , Sunda Kelapa , and Cirebon . A high-minded leader .
3 . When and from where Islam in Indonesia
History records that since the beginning of AD , traders from India and China already have trade relations with the Indonesian population . However , when exactly Islam is present in the archipelago ?
The entry of Islam into Indonesia rise to various theories . Although there are several opinions about the arrival of Islam in Indonesia , many historians tend to believe that the entry of Islam to Indonesia in the 7th century by the Tang Dynasty Chinese News . The news was noted that in the 7th century , there is a settlement of the Arab Muslim traders in the village of Baros , the west coast of North Sumatra .
13th century AD more points to the development of Islam along with the growth of Islamic kingdoms in Indonesia . This opinion is based on travel accounts of Marco Polo who testified that he had stopped in Perlak in 1292 and met with the people who have embraced Islam .
The evidence also reinforces this opinion is the discovery of the tomb tombstone of King Samudra Pasai , Sultan Malik al – Saleh were framed in 1297 .
If sorted from west to east , Islam first entered in Perlak , northern Sumatra . This involves the strategic location of Perlak , namely in the area of ​​the Strait of Malacca , international trade sea lanes from west to east . Next is the kingdom of Samudra Pasai .
In Java , Islam entered through the north coast of Java Island is marked by the discovery of the tomb of Fatimah bint Maimoon Hibatullah son who died in the year 475 Hijri or 1082 AD in the village of Leran , Manyar Subdistrict , Gresik . Judging from its name , is a descendant of Fatimah expected Hibatullah , one of the dynasty in Persia . In addition , in Gresik also found the tomb of Malik Ibrahim of Kashan ( a place in Persian ) who died in the year 822 H or 1419 AD bit inland , in Mojokerto also found hundreds of ancient Islamic tomb . The oldest tomb framed in 1374 AD It is estimated that these tombs is the tomb of the Majapahit royal family .
In Kalimantan , Pontianak Islam came through broadcast by the Arab nobles called Sultan Syarif Abdurrahman in the 18th century . Pawan River upstream , in Ketapang , West Kalimantan discovered an ancient Muslim cemetery . Figures of the oldest in the tombs was in 1340 Saka (1418 AD ) . Thus , Islam has existed before the 15th century and are thought to originate from the Majapahit Majapahit -style tomb because the shape and framed in ancient Java . In East Kalimantan , the Kutai kingdom Islam came through brought by two people of Minangkabau religious broadcaster named Tuan Tuan Haji and Haji Bandang Tunggangparangan . In South Kalimantan , the Islamic kingdom of Banjar entry through the broadcast by Dayyan , a khatib ( sermon expert ) of Demak . In Central Kalimantan , found evidence of the arrival of Islam in the mosque Ki Gede in Kotawaringin that reads numbers in 1434 AD
In Sulawesi , Islam came through the king and the people of Gowa – Tallo . It is the entry of Islam into Sulawesi recorded on Lontara Me . According to the records , the first king who converted to Islam is Kanjeng Matoaya , the fourth king of Tallo who embraced Islam in 1603 . The announcer of Islam in this region came among others from Demak , Tuban , Gresik , Minangkabau , even from Campa . In Maluku , Islam entered through the northern part , which is Ternate , Tidore , Bacan , and Jailolo . Islam in this region is estimated to be broadcast by the four scholars of Iraq , namely Sheikh Amin , Sheikh Mansour , Sheikh Omar , Sheikh and Jacob in the 8th century .


Education is an important factor for the progress of a nation, because it is said to be successful if the next generation of quality and quality so as to produce an advanced state order in all aspects.

Results of education and the provision of facilities to this at least in recorded history some developments in science and discovery by scientists-Muslim scientists. Some of these include: The field of medicine, the Muslims succeeded in developing a technique of anesthesia for the first time in the history of the world of medicine, developed the technique of operations, the establishment of hospitals, and medicines.

In chemistry, the Muslims introduced the term alkali, find ammonia, engineering distillation or refining, screening and sublimation, introducing sulfur and nitric acid, popularize glass and paper industry as well as other inventions.

Then, in the natural sciences, the discovery of the balance, the pendulum of a clock, the science of optics, and has been able to formulate the difference between the speed of light and the speed of sound, including the Muslims managed to find the magnetic compass technology to know direction of the wind. In mathematics, the Muslims succeeded in developing a decimal calculation and squares, as well as creating various formulas.

Including astronomy, the Muslims managed to build the observatory telescope in Baghdad, Damascus, Alexandria, and other places to observe the stars. While in geography, browse to the place that has not been in the know and make maps. Terrific once ya ..

Another great developments in the field of industrial and environmental maintenance are also inscribed by the Islamic civilization. In addition, the field of architecture, water delivery to homes, irrigation system to irrigate rice fields and so forth.

Therefore, do not be surprised if there is a worldwide leader commented, “The world owes a great deal to the Muslims who kept the torch of science in the dark ages …” This comment was said by CE Storrs.

All that happens when the Muslims, especially the youth cling to their religion and they believe that Islam is a source of strength and civilization that can generate a lot of progress in many areas of life, both material and spiritual. Everything is driven equally by scientists Muslims, not one-sided.

However, it seems there is something wrong in our education system, proved that occur in the field, namely the high-ranking State became ruler of wealth in a way that is unjust so as a result many poor people are always increased in each year. They are not stupid academically, writing an average of college graduates. But, because of the lack of religious knowledge and passion they who make them that way.

What’s wrong with all that? The answer is education must be repaired. Not that all this time we have one of the places we learned in education. But which one is the system. How theology under-emphasized. The proof that hour of religious instruction only two hours a week, while the science or social sciences could be four hours. Yet Allah has said in Surah Al-Mujadilah verse 11, which reads, “Allah will exalt those who believe among you and those who were given some degree of knowledge and God is aware of what you do”.

Therefore, the knowledgeable people must also understand Islamic education because we could be people who are not only academically clever. But also by faith, worship, and morals should be upheld to reflect the advantages of Islam.

Junior Year Is Critical for College Success

If your home-school student is interested in attending college, junior year is probably one of the most critical times for them to be on task. It’s the time when they should be looking for colleges, taking college prep tests, and honing their essay writing skills. Paying close attention during junior year can even make up for some errors made earlier in high school.

One of the most important tasks during junior year is to make sure that your child takes the PSAT. It’s only offered one time, in October, and some schools require you to sign up for it in September or the previous June. Simply call the public high school nearest you to register your child. The PSAT will put your child in the running for the National Merit Scholarship. The PSAT will also ask your student certain questions about himself, such as what grades he’s getting, what classes he’s taking, what his interests in the future are, etc

Another important job for junior year is to decide whether to take the SAT or ACT. Most colleges will usually accept both. If either test is fine, then you can use a different measurement to decide which one is best. I recommend that you take a sample of each test, and have your child take it at home. Weigh those two tests and compare them, and then choose the one that makes your child look like a genius. One-third of kids will do better on the SAT, one-third will do better on the ACT, and for the remaining third, it doesn’t really matter which one you choose.

During junior year, you should make sure to locate and attend a college fair. Going to a college fair is a lot like going to a home-school convention: each booth has a different college, so you can go door to door and get to know a lot of different colleges at one time.

After attending a college fair, think about the colleges that you met there, and make sure to plan some college visits. Your goal is to find a few colleges your student would like to attend, but there are too many colleges out there, so you have to make a first cut and go visit some, in order to whittle it down to a reasonable number of colleges to apply to.

Try to get to a place where you have just enough colleges to apply to, but not so many that it’s impractical to do so. The national average for the number of colleges to apply to is six; my children applied to four. Make sure that you have a wide variety of colleges to consider, both public and private, and not just one.
We were able to find a “perfect” college and my kids were selected for full tuition scholarships. We were told this was partly because of “a well developed sense of who they were.” Failing to take time to develop your student’s specialization is one of the “5 Biggest Mistakes Parents Make When Homeschooling High School.

Free Education or Cheap Education?

Currently, many potential leaders, both local leaders and leaders of central will provide free education for the citizen. They promised that if they are elected, they will provide a decent education for free. However, in the field of free education discourse is quite impossible to be implemented. This discourse will find some of the problems that will occur in the real life if it remains to do. Here are a few paragraphs that the reasons why free education is not appropriate to be implemented in this country.

The first reason is, the word free in the discussion indicated that there was not a dime costs. But in fact, there is still a school levy. Students will still be charged as buying sports clothing, uniforms, and other school needs. This is because aid is given only help operasioanl alone, such as the cost of electricity, water, books – textbooks, and etc. That’s not enough because the school also requires operational costs should be paid every day like, the cost of photocopies, markers, and others.  So the school will definitely keep charging their students. Therefore, the word free in this discourse is not appropriate and no more only as a sweetener alone.

The second reason is, if it is free, students will have no sense of responsibility. They will go around school because they think the school does not require sacrifice one bit. However, if they paying the students will have a very high responsibility for learning. They will seriously follow the lessons in school. because they would think, if they are not serious in learning, then they will lose their money.

Furthermore, if the government remains committed to the education as free, means the government will disburse funds. However, that is a problem in Here in is not the funds, but the funds disbursement process that will lead to some problems. As it is known that the disbursement of funds is usually carried out in the central government, so as to achieve the school funds must pass through several post first. This is what will create opportunities crimes. There will be elements that cut funding on the grounds of administrative costs. As a result, funds to school is no longer intact as it was originally.

Moreover, this funding will happen very long. In fact, it takes many – months to get to school. In fact, the school is very costly – the costs to finance the operational purposes of schools that must be paid. As a result, the school – the school can not run optimally. For example, if the absence of markers, or photocopy them definitely asking for funds to students san ends – ends they do not pay as well.

Based on the reasons that have been outlined above, it can be concluded that free education is just a promise merely because it is impossible remedy is implemented and if implemented would be ineffective. This is due to several things such as, funds provided by the government will not be enough, making students become responsible, and the process is long and difficult. Therefore, the discourse of free education is more appropriate and reasonable if it is replaced with cheap education.

Global Warming and the solutions

Global Warming became the most hot issue in entire the world. The effect of Global Warming is very dangerous for the environment. But, there are still a lot of people who think about the global warming as just the issue and it is never make an effect to our Earth in the future. Though, there are a lot of signs from the nature that arise as the bad effect of Global warming.

The increasing sea levels has been occured in many areas in this world.  This increase happened because of the melting of the ice in the north polar. It cause of the world too hot, and make the ice in the north polar become melting. Beside of that, we can see a lot of hurricanes, thunders, and tornado in the world with easily. Global Warming make the farms get the failure and it make reduce the foods supplies.

The cause of global warming

Generally, there are a lot of reasons that can make global warming. The use of excessive fossil fuels too much because of the vehicles are increasing is the main reason. Besides that, livestock and agriculture also have contribution such as using excessive methane gas as the fertilizers.

The chemicals in fertilizers can not only damage the air lining, but also the waters, soils, and production of the food.  Besides that, the reasons why global warming happen is because the factor of deforestation (land clearing) in big scale to make the public facilities, such as road, school, hospital, and another buildings.

The solutions to minimize global warming

To reduce the effect of global warming which happened, you can try to do these tips: First, choose the energy saving lamps as the lighting in your house. Energy saving lamps have more expensive than the general lamps, but the energy which is needed to light up is smaller than general lamps. Beside of that, this lamp is more durable.

Second, do not forget to turn off the lamps when they were not in use again. When paying the bills, you will choose to pay online. This method is more econimal than pay directly. You can reduce the using paper which is used as noted invoice. You can save the fuels of your vehicles because you are not need to use your vehicles as when pay directly.

Third, laptops and computer are the most things which is used in daily in every house. You should turn off this device when they are not in use too. And You can choose to do not use the screen saver to save the energy.

Fourth, when shopping, you should bring your own bag which is made from the cloth. Avoid to use plastic bags which is given by the supermarket. Plastic is a material that is difficult to be processed naturally by the environment. It took hundred years to make it decomposed.

Fifth, to have friendly environment, you can use bicycle which will good for your healthy too. In addition,  you must keep the condition of tap in your house in good condition.  From a lot of researches, broken taps can make the a lot of litter waters wasted in vain. Though, amount of the waters in the Earth is not much anymore. The last, always try to fill your courtyard with the trees. Tree can release oxygens which can make the air become fresh.

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